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Showing content with the highest reputation since 02/24/2019 in all areas

  1. 3 points
    Yes, VMG means velocity made good, but good as in towards the wind. VMC or velocity made course is the rate at which you are approaching your destination. And closely related, and significant in giving meaning to the other terms is TWA, towards wind angle. For any given boat their is an optimum TWA for getting the highest VMG possible. This is the angle you use sailing to weather.
  2. 2 points
    Mark, For years we've used the GARMN MAP76 and 76CX (color version with charts and magnetometer). They have always served me well and garmin always fixes them and sends them back when we send them in for repairs. I think our family has about 6 of them between us and we carry multiple spares although we've rarely had a breakdown with them. They do have a tendancy to shut off when the battery gets disconnected such as if they bang against the cockpit seats and the battery squeezes the spring and momentarily loses contact. I keep the gps in my PFD pocket on my kokatat misfit pfd with the screen facing my chest. i can slide it up for a quick check very easily. at night i typically leave it clipped to something and sitting on the seat in front of me with the backlight on the dimmest setting. That way i have a hand free to use the spotlight and can just look down to check our course. This year we took the newer MAP 78 which is a bit different but i still like it fine but don't have nearly as much time on it. Fred, Dead down wind (with main and mizzen on the same side) the chute is hanging lifeless behind the mainsail which is when you would hoist or recover it if it were bag launched from the cockpit. As we head up, we sheet it in to get it "started" and the leading edge catches the breeze and it quickly fills and we let the sheet way out so it can billow out to it's proper trim (leading edge just starting to curl). We head up to say 10 deg off ddw and the chute stays filled but the boat does not accelerate much this is where I found the best angle to be for the lighter winds we had (about 8 knots). Heading further up to say 20-30 deg off the wind the leading edge collapses as the apparent wind rotates further forward so you sheet in to keep the chute trimmed and the boat accelerates. As it accelerates apparent wind moves further ahead and you have to sheet in even more to keep up with it OR bear away. With an asymmetrical chute you are constantly playing it. rounding up to "heat" the boat up sheeting in as you do and then bearing away in the puffs to bleed off speed and gain progress downwind. VMG initially goes down but then back up once the boat gains speed. Whether or not VMG is better than it was when going ddw is what you're looking for. It's tough because you are constantly playing the chute and heading up and down a bit to keep it in trim. We didn't play the chute nearly as much as you would if you were buoy racing so with the chute cleated off it's up to the helmsman to keep it in trim with changes in course instead of constant sail trimming. heading up until it just starts to curl on the leading edge and then bearing away in the puffs. We did this a lot sailing in the tybee 500 especially when conditions were very steady state (flat water and constant breeze) and the crew can take a break from "sawing" on the spinnaker sheet. With a following swell you can head up to heat the boat up, catch the swell, bear away (sheeting out as you do to keep the chute powered up if needed) or if you caught the swell (yay) and are now surfing you might be sheeting the chute in hard to keep up with the apparent wind shifting forward. You just have to have your eyes glued to the leading edge of the spinnaker and do whatever it wants. If we'd had a bit more wind which we did a couple of times then the boat pops up on plane and as soon as it does you have to sheet the chute in again to keep up with the apparent wind (keeping the chute trimmed properly all the time). And then you can bear away now on plane and let the the chute out a bit as you do keeping the boat powered up and you can now drive the boat down on plane and make lots of good speed more toward ddw and if you lose speed you head back up to find it again. wash rinse repeat. I kept the mainsail in about where it would be when sailing upwind which is where it wanted to be and also helps act as a back-stay. Of course the running backstays were pulled in as well. On the spinnaker catamarans, if you don't have the main sheeted in tight when you're flying the chute the mast won't stay up very long. The mizzen is a different story, I kept it out more like i was on a broad reach or even a bit deeper because it has a lot of leverage over the boat and when the boat heats up and heels over there is weather helm generated from the lift of the sails being to the lee of the boat. To de-power the boat while flying the spinnaker you bear away toward ddw and you don't want anything to prevent you from doing that. The mizzen can easily overpower the rudder input in that situation. Many times when you want to bear away you have to make sure the mizzen is let out a touch. Also if you're sailing upwind hard and the boat is trying to sail on her ear too much it will cool right off if you just crack off on the mizzen just a touch. As for knowing when to tack or gybe in this case it was really just when we felt like it. We were following the leader so as a rule you don't want to get too far from them so you get about the same air as they have and you get about the same shifts and puffs. In our case we were also trying to minimize gybes which are slow so we would sail out until we though we can sail "in" back toward cape sable and have a nice long run. We're trying to sail the shortest path so like for sailing around cape sable we set a go to point down at the farthest point out that we'll have to turn at. When we reach that point we set a new point and so on. So the gps is always telling me to turn to that course that is the shortest straight line course. If you tack through 100 deg and you're sailing upwind on a port tack and the gps says turn 50 deg to port to be "on course" then you know you're doing just as good on that course as you would do on the other tack. If you get headed (wind shift causing you to bear away or fall off) then you can switch to the favored tack for a slightly higher vmg. Some boats sail waaay out away from the beach but i don't like that because most of the wind is usually right there near the beach and also i can't tell you how many times i've been farther off the beach and watched boats closer to the beach pull away and rarely is it the other way around. As you approach a "go to" point you're navigating to on your GPS then you get close to the laylines and the "turn to" number changes faster. You know when you've reached the layline when your turn number equals your tacking angle (assuming there is no current). the gps is a super handy tool and invaluable at night but during the day i'm focused just as much on where other boats are, looking for current as we pass markers and making sure the boat "feels fast". Also, we probably kicked our rudder up 30 or 40 times along the course and pulled the CB up all the way occasionally during a tack to make sure we weren't dragging an ocean of seaweeds around with us. Usually you see a nice clump of them float away behind the boat whenever you do.
  3. 2 points
    I enjoyed watching your time lapse video, you are doing a great job. I am sorry about your little glitch. It is not a big deal and will not compromise the boat. Unfortunately it is right around the maximum curvature where the ply is under the most stress and will cause a slight outward bulge. It needs to be epoxied back into place but you need to apply force to get the cracked veneers back to the fair shape. I would cut a piece of 6mm ply about 9" long and 7" wide with plastic sandwiched between the ply and the hull and screw it over the damaged area to force the hull back to its fair shape until the epoxy cured. Because the 6mm ply bottom that you are screwing into does not have enough thread bearing area to absorb the force needed to draw the cracked area back to a fair shape, you need to use some blocks to screw into, like 1 1/4" squares of 3/4" ply. Put some duct tape on the underside of the blocks. You should do a dry run to check that it works like you want. If it does not quite bring the surface back to fair, try thicker ply. I presume that you will glass the outside of the hull before painting. I would glass a patch on the inside and you will be back to full strength.
  4. 2 points
    I try to tell myself that. In fact, I started to clean up the sole of my build a week or so ago and started with the attitude of "it's a walking surface and will have non skid on it so I'm not going to put much effort into fairing it". Didn't last too long before I had the long board on that too. I know myself, if there is one thing out of place in the finished product, I will have to look at it every time I use the boat and berate myself for not addressing it. Who's the smarter man, the one who is playing with his boat or the one who is still sanding it 3 years later.
  5. 2 points
    I'm using the two Anderson bailers method. I don't think it is necessary superior to any other method; just different (Jay's system works very well; I saw it in person at one of the Messabouts and it is very quick to fill and empty). Yes, you do have to remove the flapper in the reverse-mounted bailer (hereafter referred to as the scoop). It is very easy to remove; pliars and 10 seconds are all you need. Filling While sailing: filling with the scoop does not take long at all, even at 1 knot While motoring: very quick and effecient Not moving: slow (I open both bailers to speed it up, but it takes awhile). It will only fill the tank up to the waterline of the boat, so you will have to top it off after closing the bailers. I use a folding bucket. Any water spilled goes right out of the self-draining cockpit. Emptying While sailing: need to be moving above 3 knots. I haven't timed it, but it isn't quick. It won't empty the last inch or so of water, but I don't think that is a big deal. One disadvantage is situations when the wind dies down, you are moving slow, and you want to empty the tank. It can take a while. I need to buy a kayaker's hand pump for these cases; I think that would work well. While motoring: empties quickly and effeciently Not moving: only the portion of the tank above the waterline will empty (maybe 25% of the tank?). I need to get a handpump for these cases. I wouldn't change anything if I had to do it again. Yes, you need a handpump and bucket, but those are good items to have regardless of the ballast tank. I think the ballast tank is one the best features of the boat (love the low trailering weight), and whichever empty/fill technique you use you will be happy you have one. I hit some steep chop close-hauled in the middle of the Chesapeake Bay, put the water ballast in, and it smoothed out the motion of the boat. I was amazed at how well it handled the waves.
  6. 2 points
    I started this spindrift over 10 years ago, it got set aside for other projects shortly after I got started. But I was needing something to do this winter that would fit in the garage so out she came. The bottom of the hull is 1/4 inch meranti and the sides are 3mm oakume planked with 1/4 inch mahogany. The transom is rounded mahogany and the front deck is mahogany and birdseye maple. I'm moving along at a good pace now so I will bee posting a few pictures along the way for those that are interested. There is a lot of customizing of this boat, its the basic design with some pretty's added. She will come in 40 to 50 pounds over weight I'm sure but she will sure be purty! Heres a pic of the deck roughed in.
  7. 1 point
    Matt, My experience has been that the boat is ever so slightly faster (or at least feels faster perhaps due to the added weather helm) with the mizzen sheeted in just a touch extra. That being said, it's easy to take it too far and if the boat starts feeling slow again I let both sails out and start again. Sometimes the boat just starts bogging down from being over sheeted but it's hard to know sometimes unless your able to sail along side another boat for reference or you are glued to the gps for speed. A few times this year on the EC when we had a long beat after CP2 to Cape Sable and we were trying to keep up with the Highlander I would reset our average speed on the gps and sheet something just slightly or adjust the snotter and then see the effect on average speed after say 5 min. I'm not sure it was any better than just "feeling" if the boat was faster but we had nothing else to do and were sailing too high to use the spinnaker at that point The mizzen operates in the backwash of the main especially when beating so I've always felt that it needed to be sheeted in a bit more than the main. Sheeted in just past luffing might be the right spot but I think a better way to think about it is to be sheeted in to "just before stall" which might be 2 or 3 or some other number of degrees past when the sail looks like it's not luffing. In other words I think there is a range (maybe 5 deg) of sheeting angles that will look fine (telltales flying nicely) when beating and which one is best? I don't know. Having a lot more tell tales would be nice to try sometime and do some testing. Like taping a bunch of 4" long pieces of cassette tape (if you can find one) to the sail near the mast. Also I think in stronger wind the effect is not as bad since the area of backwash from the main is moving faster and has less effect on the mizzen (just a guess) so then the mizzen becomes more effective and the boat starts to feel the extra lift which is sometimes too much. That's why I think the boat really pops up when you get a gust while going upwind so sometimes i'll crack off on the mizzen just a bit to depower it a little whereas otherwise I would keep it in that little extra bit. Still rounding up in the puffs to keep from capsizing of course but it seems to me that the mizzen wants to be in a slightly different spot compared to the main when the wind picks up if that makes sense.
  8. 1 point
    We have routes saved to go between each checkpoint but we don't always stay navigating on the route all the time. It's nice to break it up into smaller chunks so you can say, ok 4 hours until we reach (whatever the next milestone is) and i just use the route as a guide and set my own "go to" point. The route is a lot less important for us since depending on the wind direction we might follow the route exactly or be tacking wildly across it in which case it is not helpful to have closely spaced points along the route and better to keep picking a point up ahead say 5 or 10 miles distant. Otherwise as you pass each point vmg drops to zero and the gps is telling to you turn 90 deg to be on course while in actual fact you might be just sailing past one of the route points. The garmin decides when to navigate you to the next point on the route which is annoying sometimes because you can have a gap in the heading information until the gps picks up the next point on the route which is why i like to have my go to point always distant. If your navigating through an inlet though you're going slower and have to be more mindful to stay on the route exactly especially at night.
  9. 1 point
    Was inspired by the WaterTribe Ultra Marathon to make some progress here. Mostly finished now with several bench projects, including tiller + rudder assembly, centerboard, and locker tops and coamings. Also got the hull panels fully assembled, wired together, and did the unfolding ritual last night; now my pile of wood is vaguely boat shaped. Unfolding was exciting due to my failure to account for the height of hanging light fixtures in the shop, which meant some ladder work in the middle of the process. Time-lapse video of my unfolding adventure here.
  10. 1 point
    Support of the front deck
  11. 1 point
    I’ve been under the weather, but I did complete the d/b trunk. All that’s left for this half is to finalize the forward hatch, fair & sand, prime and paint. I did mentally switch over to thinking about the floatation tanks for the after half. I think I’m going to do mine much like Pete McCrary’s TP7. I want more agressive floatation when my grandkids are sailing. Maybe these can be add-ons. At least I’m nearly done with the forward interior.
  12. 1 point
    Reacher: What you need is a polar plot of your boat's performance on all points. For a boat with zero friction at the "interface" (which an iceboat approaches because steel on ice friction is very very low) -- the polar plot approximates a circle. It looks like this: The vector W is the wind velocity and V is the boat velocity (showing speed and direction with respect to the wind vector -- which is straight up the page). The circles represent the boat's performance expressed as a function of its heading and the L/D (lift to drag) ratio of its sail (ignoring the boat's windage). So, an iceboat with a sail having an L/D of 3 (typical) or 5 (high performance) can, on a broad reach make V = 3 X W (typical) or V = 5 X W (high performance). Note that directly downwind the polar plot shows that V = W no matter what the L/D is. The horozontal L/D of a keel-less boat is quite poor, but is vastly improved by a centerboard, especially one with a hydrofoil with high aspect ratio (length to width). For steel on very smooth ice, the "L/D" is probably close to the inverse of its coefficient of friction. The velocity polar plot is affected by these performance figures (in each medium) for the vehicle traveling in this "ancient" interface -- water/air for boats, hard sand or Tarmac for land yachts, Gravity/air for airplanes, air/string/anchor or surfboard (gravity) for kites. Note that iceboats always sail "close hauled" even when on a broad reach -- and, because they are going much faster than the wind, the sail luffs and a gibe is quite tame. The polar plot shown above was in an article that I wrote back in 1974: I don't know the link, but the article is available on the Internet If you had a compass, a good GPS plotter, a steady wind, and a lake with no tide or current, you could easily create your own polar plot and determine the best point to sail in order to fetch any destination in minimum time.
  13. 1 point
    Thanks all for the suggestions and recommendations. I basically followed Amos' suggestion and also, as Alan suggested, put a scrap of fiberglass on the inside of the panel, then planed it flat and then sanded to clean it up.
  14. 1 point
    Which GPS plotter do you guys like for small boat sailing?
  15. 1 point
    My dad, who was an accountant, always told me to "check and double check" my homework. To this day, I try to check over what I write before posting it, but, after posting I'll go back and read it and almost always find a misspelled word, word not capitalized that should be, bad grammar, or... So I edit it, check it, and re-post it. Then when I look it over again, guess what! And this is WITH spell checker. I just don't understand it cawse I alwaze spel gud, and mever nake misteaks.
  16. 1 point
    I am with Dave on this. It just sounds like a disaster looking for a place to happen. You only need one sheet of 5x5 plywood and the cost is under $50 typically. I realize many of us have more time then we have money but it's not worth risking you live over $50.
  17. 1 point
    Steve, I like to glass tape the nesting bulkheads to the hull halves which crosses the centerline under the keel so that it can all be cleaned up prior to adding the keel. It is not hard to cut though the keel after the epoxy has cured to re-separate the hull halves.
  18. 1 point
    Curious why Graham has you guys install the keel after you cut it in half? I have read this same procedure a couple of times.
  19. 1 point
    Velocity and speed are not the same things. Velocity has a direction component and speed does not. Lots of engineering students have gone off track by confusing the two terms. Therefore VMG means speed made good in a specific direction, which can be upwind, downwind or crosswise. Neither SMG nor CMG are as well defined although CMG can be so defined if you wish.
  20. 1 point
    Interesting how you guys refer to it as VMG instead of what most Mariners at least on the west coast refer to it as SMG (speed made good) or CMG (course made good). As a licensed deck officer and 23 years as a Coast Guard rescue boat operator I had never heard of VMG. Anyways thank you for your explanation. After looking the term up on google search it is a sailing yacht term to describe upwind sailing as you guys previously stated, which might be why I wasn't familiar with the term, even though I'm no stranger to sailing either. Learn something every day!
  21. 1 point
    Technically you are correct. Unfortunately, on modern (at least on two my Garmin) GPS if you pick a waypoint and then select VMG it gives you the speed to the mark with no regard to wind direction. Ironically, most of my testing has been to an upwind mark when beating, but it's also useful downwind.
  22. 1 point
    We were only able to use the spinnaker on the last bit of the run around the everglades when the wind turned more west. We cant use it dead down wind being an assymetrical spinnaker but it gained us 1-1.5 knots vmg downwind in about 10 knots of breeze i would guess. So maybe 5.5 knots wing on wing vs 6-6.5 vmg with it sailing maybe 20 ir 25 deg off ddw. You lose speed in the gybes though and the Highlander would catch back up during gybes since we were being very careful not too flip or get lines hung up. As the wind picked up and the boat jumped up on plane with the spinnaker the gains are substantially more i think we say 9.5knots a few times when we let her heat up but it was speed with little vmg gain.
  23. 1 point
    Mark, the pump is a bronze body pump made by Johnson Pump called the Ultra Ballast Pump from the ski boat industry. Salt water rated, 700 gph, takes about 5-6 minutes to fill or empty the tank. The through hull is inside the trunk way aft where the board is thinner, no drag penalty. I used 1 inch pvc piping, I plan to redo the piping using PEX with bronze swedge connector fittings. Loosing some efficiency with the hard turns of the PVC and wash down valve.
  24. 1 point
    Makes quite a difference on our boat, it carries sail a lot more confidently with water in the tank, and sails like the anchor has fallen off the bow roller in light air with full tanks! That is when the pump is handy. The wash down feature is nice too.
  25. 1 point
    Thanks! These things are really a nice setup in the boat. They sell just the brackets and I made the step. I wanted to be able to fold up the step for seating room below. I recessed the steps to fit two yeti Cups. Brackets are here: https://www.amazon.com/Garelick-EEz-Polished-Aluminum-Brackets/dp/B00JDAVLRO/ref=pd_sbs_468_2/145-5802875-8410231?_encoding=UTF8&pd_rd_i=B079TKMPTR&pd_rd_r=09c64848-411c-11e9-8f93-33fde218e404&pd_rd_w=wiUkr&pd_rd_wg=FwrnK&pf_rd_p=588939de-d3f8-42f1-a3d8-d556eae5797d&pf_rd_r=CH1QBWQ3BPJHWA6WY4BB&refRID=CH1QBWQ3BPJHWA6WY4BB&th=1 Click on the folding bracket tab. Currently $39.20. Really sturdy.
  26. 1 point
    Hi Mark, I have a reversible pump used by ski boats to pump water in/out of the ballast tank. I have a bronze thru hull in the aft end of the center board trunk and the pump mounted in the port cockpit locker. I also have some plumbing so I can use the pump to clean fish and wash mud out of the cockpit. I have a 3/4 inch 3 way valve that I can direct the flow of the pump to the ballast tank or the wash down hose. If you use a electric pump I seriously suggest mounting it in a rubber mounts. The first year we went to the Messabout you could hear our pump all over the place! Since mounted it in some rubber mounts and still loud doesn’t howl! I have a 24 series AMG battery with 22 watts of solar cell and while now much, haven’t charged battery in several years.
  27. 1 point
    Tom, We had the original green/white/yellow assym spinnaker. It worked well except for our homemeade torque line for top down furling. It had too much twist and would roll the sail unevenly top to bottom causing the sail to hang up when we tried to unroll it. Rolling it up while it just flogged (no sheet load) worked the best. Other than that we wished wed had a bit more luff tension or had adjustable luff tension but we gave that up with our diy top down furling setup. It was worth the trade off but just needs tweaking and maybe a less twistable torque line.
  28. 1 point
    EC-22 and Highlander safe and sound.
  29. 1 point
  30. 1 point
    Chic I used off white glass bubbles from Raka then mixed maple flour slowly till it was close. Worked pretty good, thanks for the help all. Sanded real easy, looks good now sanded, we'll see what it looks like after everything is coated. Might have a picture tonight on a new spindrift thread.
  31. 1 point
  32. 1 point
    State Champ, Boys Combined Nordic Champ, Fastest leg of State Champ Relay Team, and his HS won the boys team title. Now I can get back to boats......
  33. 1 point
    My first question would be: "Do I have to be able to remove the toe rail?" If NO: I would epoxy it down. If a few screws would help snug it down during the process I would use SS and bury them under a bung later. If YES: I would varnish them firs including the bedded surface, paint or what ever the cabin top, and bed the rails in Sikaflex 291 and fasten from below. Teak holds fasterners very well and Sika is an adhesive bedding that isn't impossible to undo later. If I could, I would sink the screws and bung them using shellac as the adhesive so that I could remove them later. Or use bronze oval head screws and enjoy the patina. Epoxy impregnated or bushinged holes are great. I do think people over use them. Today's bedding compounds are so good that I see no point in the epoxy unless something is going to be removed semi-often or more. Centerboard pivots, nesting bolt holes, etc., are where that process shines.
  34. 1 point
    Years ago, in a "previous life", back in the 70s, I lived a mobile home on a couple of acres in Trenton, Florida. There was a a low spot next to my trailer. When it rained it would hold water for a couple of days. I would take a dinghy or canoe to the puddle and happily paddle or row around. I'd try to sail, but there wasn't enough depth for the dagger board. (I built dinks, canoes, and little fishing boats outa fiberglass, that I'd sell to boat dealers back then.) Never slept aboard, though.
  35. 1 point
    Chessie now has her Dodger and is tucked snugly away in her garage just as Virginia gets ready for the last [hopefu;;y] snow on the 2nd day of spring. Just before Dave (Potomac Canvas Co.) started cutting canvas, I stood under the dry-fitted tubing and decided that the headroom [under to tubing] wouldn't be enough for me to stand in the companionway and comfortably use a hand-held urinal. So I asked Dave if he could cut me a "zippered" opening in the top that would give me unlimited headroom while standing on the cabin sole. He wouldn't guarantee it to be waterproof, but we decided that it would resist all but the hardest rain. And if the companionway hatch is closed, leaking wouldn't matter anyway. And, after final assembly, we discovered another reason to have the opening. It allows for deployment / stowage of the Dodger while on the water. I suppose that will be occasionally useful, but for the most part I'll probably sail with the Dodger deployed. I'll discover if that's the case during this summer's cruising season. Dave originally didn't recommend that the Dodger (even in stowed position) be on the cabin roof while trailering on the highway. But he made a "dust cover" for me anyway. And seeing how well it's secured on the cabin roof, he thought highway travel would be OK. In fact I hit 60 to 70 mph while trailering her home from the canvas shop without any problems. Here are a few photos: The planned "sky-light": The next two photos show the "Boot" -- which we originally called just a "dust cover": The black item is simply a piece of pipe insulation slipped over the leading edge as "chafe" protection where the canvas and tubing rest on the dodger's coaming. Entrance / exit thru the companionway hatch is slightly impeded when Dodger in stowed position.. View from the starboard-side helmsman position. I'd say the view is not significantly impeded. Skylight open and rolled up. View from aft, starboard and port. View from forward and closeup of attachment hardware. Once folded and in the "boot" the whole thing can be removed by just lining up the retainers and pulling the pins. Later, I'll post the weight of the whole thing. NOTICE the wrinkles in the top. They will be "tensioned" out when Dave sends me the "tensioning" straps which will pull the top "tight" with extra leverage much more so than the little bungee cords on the ear-flaps. The first straps wouldn't release easily. By-the-way: The skylight allows one to reach all the turn-buttons while standing on the cabin sole. Absent that feature, deployment and stowage would have to be made on shore before launch. With the skylight open -- I can launch with the Dodger in its boot and strapped to the cabin roof for road transport. Perhaps not deployed at all during a day-sail, or only at anchor (on an overnight cruise).
  36. 1 point
    Drew, I had the same question. Unfortunately that would only work to furl the sail in about half way and then it would bind up. Once the top half of the sail starts to wind onto the torsion line then the whole thing goes and the tack starts wrapping up as well. We found the best was to just keep winding and all the spinnaker sheets were taken up (wrapped around the sail) and all out of the way.
  37. 1 point
    Couple more pictures. Shows the kayak closer, so you get better idea how it looks. Deck rigging is going to get done before spring.
  38. 1 point
    Took the opportunity of retirement to build a Vardo kayak. The process thus far has been a great experience with the only difficulty obtaining decent western red cedar for the stringers. I ended up splicing clear pieces together to meet my needs. I used marine spar varnish to preserve the hull. The fabric is nylon and I used a powdered pigment to obtain the orange color. Today I'll finish the deck and I'm thinking about adding some west coast native American Indian art work to the finished boat. .

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